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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

根据《每日经济新闻》报道,1980版的猴年生肖纪念邮票价格由于种种原因创下了历史新高。

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特斯拉(Tesla)正处在蜜运中。这家电动汽车公司的财富以不可思议的速度积聚,而投资者仍在热烈地追捧它。
他说,薪酬是个问题(2010年记者的年薪中值为3.6万美元)。他不知道自己能否靠做记者的薪水供养家庭并送孩子上大学。而且还有一点没错,记者的压力和工作时间可能会令人感到精疲力竭。但他说,我不确定自己换个工作是否会开心,也想不出任何一个工作会像做记者这样让我觉得兴奋或有成就感。
In a sign that civil service jobs may be losing their appeal, a report issued by recruitment website Zhaopin in late March said more than 10,000 public sector employees, including civil servants and staff members at public institutions, had submitted their resumes to potential employers through the site in just two months. The number was 34 percent higher during the same period last year, the report said.

adj. 娴熟的,有造诣的,完成的,有成就的,毫无疑问的
福特汽车
This umbrella protects your dogs from the sun and rain.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

中介争抢租房市场蛋糕 供应庞大房租难涨

China will not see nor allow massive unemployment of particular groups this year, as the government is capable of ensuring a favorable environment to generate jobs.
Teach First自成立以来将5000名毕业生送入学校任教,与低收入地区的逾100万学生合作,帮助提高了教学质量,尤其是伦敦地区的教学质量。
Similarly, Katy Perry was initially granted a visa to perform at the show in Shanghai but Chinese officials soon changed their mind. This, it has been claimed, is because the singer carried a Taiwanese flag and wore a dress covered in sunflowers during a 2015 concert in Taiwan.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

新兴市场出口额(以美元计算)下滑完全是一种价格效应,受到大宗商品价格下降的拖累。从数量上看,新兴市场出口自2014年以来一直持续上升,即便同比年增长率已放缓至2%左右——远远低于全球金融危机前后的两位数增长率,如第二张图表所示。
['institju:t]
支出提升三成是由更专业的创新药品,更多患者支付得起药品以及放宽专利期限这些因素驱动的。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 你或许要很长时间才能实现工作与生活的平衡,但努力遵守这个清单,并将其作为创业的目标,将会产生不一样的效果。创业者如何看待所取得的进步?以及一家公司多快才能实现正常运营和实现收支平衡?遵循这些建议,你很快就能找到答案。
  • 刘士余主动投案 正配合中央纪委国家监委审查调查
  • 8月首播的《秦时丽人明月心》全剧共48集,围绕着秦朝(公元前221-206年)时的争斗和爱情故事展开,剧情均为虚构。
  • 你不知道的北京地铁:有地铁司机一天喝11包咖啡
  • 北京市住建委:违规“小产权房”信息发布 21家房地产中介被查处
  • Neighborhoods
    目前,达洛伊西奥80%的工作围绕着Summly的重构和改良展开,而另外20%的工作精力则用来思考今后的挑战方向。他预测,未来将会有一款如同Summly精炼文字一样可以精炼视频的软件。他设想了许多运用科技来帮助人们学习知识的方法,并希望在旧有教育模式瓦解的同时帮助人们更好地实现自主学习。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 群雄逐鹿的民宿市场 究竟有多美?, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

卖壳、上市、倒闭、试水电商——2014家居建材业的“金九”

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

2016年中国家居行业的五大风向标

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 哈佛大学的一项研究证明,随着年龄增长,饮食可能会对你的记忆力有重要的影响。妇女医院的科学家们在《神经病学记事》发表的研究报告指出,食用含有大量饱和脂肪酸的食物(如红肉和黄油)的女性比正常饮食的女性记性更差。虽然研究人员暂时没有发现记忆力和饱和脂肪之间的确切联系,但是他们猜测饱和脂肪酸也许对基因有那么些影响。
    对民主主义者而言,此类原始情绪的爆发之所以令人担忧是因为它们很难遏制。
  • As the stars' private jets swooped in, the internet was going mad for 'the Dad bod'; the slightly flabby male physique was trending and there were plenty of examples on screen. Deborah Cole of AFP noted a “sweating, panting and shirtless” Gerard Depardieu in Valley of Love and a flash of Joaquin Phoenix's “tubby tummy” in Woody Allen's Irrational Man. When Colin Farrell strode the red carpet for the premiere of The Lobster, he looked his usual trim self – but in the film he is distinctly paunchy. To add some girth for the role of a lonely singleton in Yorgos Lanthimos' absurdist black comedy, Farrell went on a massively calorific diet that included drinking melted ice cream, he told the Hollywood Reporter. Eating “two cheeseburgers, fries and Coca-Colas, and two slices of chocolate cake at 10am is not that fun,” he said. “And I love cheese?burgers."
    James Gorman, a Times reporter, accompanied scientists who are trying to understand the genes that distinguish dogs from wolves. Humans who raise wolf puppies must spend 24 hours a day, seven days a week with them in order to socialize these puppies for scientific study. And while the pups may seem cute, they will grow to be predatory wolves, not humanity’s faithful companions. The researchers hope their work will help reveal the trigger that made some ancient wolves into the dogs we know today.
    I wonder if the Pelicans are in that position, too. It looks like their highest Brow-era pick will be Buddy Hield. That's not optimal.
    We began the year worried that the US was poised to withdraw from the World Trade Organisation. That hasn’t happened. And it’s now unlikely to any time soon.
    Gitanjali因为拿下了本次最高奖项,从而获得了一笔2.5万美元的奖金。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 一季度北京个人房贷增加93亿元
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 深度贫困地区可灵活使用宅基地

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

大隅在自噬作用上的研究成果,为帕金森病、糖尿病等常见疾病的治疗带来了一线希望。
No. One way it could play out: after a tentative start involving lots of trading stops, bitcoin futures will slowly begin to attract institutional money. Commodity Futures Trading Commission positioning data will reflect the extraordinary long bias that exists for the product among money managers. As the huge cost of rolling futures positions becomes self-evident, longs will complain ever more loudly about routine divergences around settlement time. Just as a senate hearing is being scheduled to investigate potential manipulation of the market, futures prices will fall below spot, initiating a sell-off.
My favourite award every year is for a spurious renaming of a common noun. A couple of years ago, Speedo rechristened the swimming cap a “hair management system”. Last year, Falke went one better by renaming a line of socks “Life Performance Solutions”.
ultimate
But yeah, of course they should tank. And so should the Kings. Again. And the Heat. And the Magic. These are mediocre teams, at best, without high upsides even in the most optimistic projections.
今年上榜的中国品牌有36个,其中8个进入前100名,包括国家电网(36)、中国工商银行(40)、腾讯(43)、央视(62)、海尔(76)、中国移动(79)、华为(81)和联想(90)。
In the tweet, Obama quoted Nelson Mandela, "No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin or his background or his religion..."

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 8. “The Diary of a Teenage Girl” In her terrific feature debut, Marielle Heller traces the artistic and sexual awakening of a 15-year-old (a sensational Bel Powley) whose desires leads to adulthood.
  • 一二线城市二手房价普遍降温 仅深圳在涨
  • 自动驾驶汽车,自拍杆,无人驾驶飞机,触屏设备,电子香烟,喷射背包和许多其他看起来像现代的发明的东西,其实都是老发明。大部分的"发明者"把它们当做新发明,甚至去申请专利。但事实是,这些"发明"已经存在一段时间了。它们都有早期类似的原型,这些早期产品最终没有投入生产,或因为特定原因而限量生产。而有些"发明"得以大批量生产,却因为销售不佳而流产。
    怎样减肥?
  • 2017年卫浴洁具行业四大新态势
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 10月份中国非制造业商务活动指数(非制造业PMI)为54.3,低于9月份55.4的近期峰值。其中,服务业商务活动指数为53.5,比9月份的峰值回落0.9个百分点。就连建筑业的形势似乎也有所恶化,商务活动指数为58.5,较9月份回落2.6个百分点。
    相比之下,沪股市盈率为12.6倍。这反映出A股和H股的巨大价差(37%)。在经历2015年的跌宕起伏之前,二者价差更多时候处于20%以下——暗示H股指数大有上行空间。诚然,H股指数并不代表中国“新经济”中最好的部分,特别是银行股占比偏大。增长预测十分惨淡。然而,在预期已经如此糟糕的情况下,很难想象还能坏得哪里去。即使是受产能过剩困扰的地产业也在逐渐走出低迷。
  • 贝莱德(BlackRock)的iShares亚太区主管陈蕙兰(Susan Chan)表示,ETF更受该地区机构投资者的欢迎。
    Sun said he tried to pry open the elevator door, but dismissed the idea and instead leaned against the wall concerned there could be a malfunction that would send the elevator in a free fall.
  • The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to a scientist who managed to build the world’s tiniest machines out of molecules.
    He also has serious thrill issues dude.
  • 这个变化很大一部分原因是因为去年十月软件巨头Adobe公司发生了重大安全漏洞,致使数百万用户遭受影响。
    由美国演员Jared Leto领衔的“火星三十秒”拿到了最佳另类音乐奖,同时还有Lana Del Rey,Lorde,The XX和Imanine Dragons等人提名。
    勇士的横扫,实际上让那些试图挑战勇士的球队无力追赶勇士的脚步,致使联盟在季后赛收入上损失惨重。于是,总决赛便成了战胜勇士的最后的希望,也是最后的机会。总有些愚蠢的人通过不断告诉你不要低估了勒布朗·詹姆斯来让你重燃希望。我看了所有五场詹姆斯在的总决赛,我现在客观的告诉你:詹姆斯知道自己赢不了。“我能做什么?他们赢了73场比赛,我打败了他们,于是他们引进了凯文杜兰特。”在凯文杜兰特用自己的冷血投射杀死系列赛之前,骑士还设法在三场比赛中夺得了一场胜利。但最后,骑士队虽然避免了横扫的尴尬,但他们结束赛季的方式也只能用虎头蛇尾来形容。
  • 不像这篇文章中其他的人造物品,人工胰腺并不处于前期研究阶段,这个装置确实存在,而且在今年9月份得到了FDA的销售许可
    10月份,中国居民消费价格总水平(CPI)同比涨幅降至1.3%,为今年5月以来的最低涨幅;环比下降0.3%,为今年5月以来的首次环比下降。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 并非所有橱柜企业都能走“设计品牌”之路 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

追问房租暴涨背后几大疑点:涨了多少 涉及哪里?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

多家银行推出公积金或工资等多种形式办无抵押贷款

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

市场信心得支撑量价微升 3月北京楼市初现暖意

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

中国央行调查:近半居民预期下季度房价“基本不变”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • adj. 傲慢的,自大的
  • 单词severe 联想记忆:
  • 北京人均GDP突破2万美元

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 法国
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 然而,相关数据似乎表明,中国企业投资西方经济体的步伐可能在放缓。
    此外,摩洛哥还是九大联合国教科文组织世界遗产的聚居地,主要包括一些古城和旧城遗址,对于历史爱好者来说是一个不错的选择。
    有了正确的工具,你就会发现自己的工作生活变得更加高效。(财富中文网)
  • 不论是在那首一目了然的《IDGAF》(《我才不在乎呢》)中对情人的不屑一顾,还是在那首狂热的《Lost in Your Light》(《迷失在你的光芒中》)与米格尔热烈的音乐相和,她以些许艾蕾莎·贝丝·摩儿那种深沉的态度和些许希雅那种令人受不了的夸张,强烈地表达着自己的情感,但她也是一位比这两人都要热情的歌手。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 将第1题到第9题的分数相加,计算自己在“消极情感”维度的得分。
  • 东莞:特色人才购房补贴最高250万元
  • 4.Virtual Assistant: 17.6 percent increase

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 美涂士漆石家庄正定店全新开业
  • Household substance abuse
  • 家居行业年底冲量 销售囤货两手抓
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

菏泽住建局最新回应:实为取消限制转让期限

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 雾霾来袭 石家庄石材等7大行业限期停产
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 李克强:保障基本民生 不断改善人民生活
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

对欧洲的新投资比2014年的180亿美元高出28%,相比之下,2014年投资额较2013年翻了一倍。对美国的投资比2014年的128亿美元高出17%。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

AR could be the bigger opportunity after Apple’s Tim Cook gave the technology his backing — it was included in Apple’s latest operating system and its iPhone X device.
Why was I so confident that there would be no war in east Asia, either in the East China Sea or the South China Sea? The simple answer is that I know the Asian dynamic. While many Asian neighbours will make angry nationalist statements (and they have to do so to manage popular nationalist sentiments), they are also careful and pragmatic in their deeds.
Payne, a former lottery pick, missed time with a foot injury and hasn't shown any major progress as a shooter or a defender in year two.
Anxiety about addiction to screen time gave rise to a dubious new line of businesses: boot camps, often run by ex-military personnel, promising to help wayward youth kick the habit. But investigative reports p ublished in recent days by Beijing News and the Mirror reveal abusive conditions, leading to the death of at least one student, at the Zhengzhou Boqiang New Idea Life Training School, which billed itself a s an Internet-addiction recovery camp in eastern Henan province.
Law firms will lead the pack, with 30% expecting to add staff. Paralegals with four to six years' experience are in particular demand, as are attorneys who specialize in "lucrative areas like litigation, health care, bankruptcy, and foreclosure law," the report says.
DIHK's foreign business chief Volker Treier said the volume of goods exported to China from Germany grew rapidly in the latter part of 2016, Chinanews.com reported.
Helsinki-based developer Remedy Entertainment has blurred the line between Hollywood and games with previous incarnations Max Payne and Alan Wake. Now the studio is combining next-generation visuals with the tension and drama of scripted television. Set in the university town of Riverport, Quantum Break puts players in control of Jack Joyce and Beth Wilder, a pair of ordinary people who are given the extraordinary power to manipulate time after an accident that creates a time rift. Time will randomly break down during the game, which causes disasters in the environment that pause, stutter, rewind and freeze. Fans of Max Payne’s bullet time will see new strategies emerge with gunfights involving time-amplified combat as the player fights against the Monarch Corporation. In addition to the virtual storyline, the game features custom live action storytelling that’s personalized based on the decisions one makes.
7.你们公司的人事在一个求职网站上发现了你的简历。
['steibl]
While organizers of the show attempt to get it back on track following a string of problems obtaining visas for models and performers such as Gigi Hadid and Katy Perry, now they're also claiming that their e-mails are being intercepted by Chinese authorities.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

一线楼市存销比降低 业界猜房价酝酿上涨节奏

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 不过,增长疲软对年终奖的影响或许在2015年已见顶。当时,66%的白领员工没有收到年终奖。而2016年的比例实际上比2014年都有所好转,那一年未收到年终奖的比例为61%。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 目前全国11个省的52所高校配备了自动售货机,出售艾滋病检测试剂以供学生自查。
  • 广州外围区域二手楼价值凸显 买家以改善为主
  • Anna Faith Carlson, 18, became an online sensation when she posted a picture of her posing next to a cardboard cutout of Elsa a few months ago.
  • 37家万达百货门店更名为苏宁易购广场
  • Despite the criticism, Mayer defended her decision to Fortune in April and said that the move was "wrongly perceived as an industry narrative." Mayer said she needed employees to work in the office to encourage collaboration and innovation from workers. So far it looks like her controversial move may be helping the business: Yahoo's stock is up more than 100% since Mayer took over in 2012.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 宁夏通报35起建筑领域违法违规的典型案例
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Wishing you peace, joy and happiness through the coming year.在新年来临之际,祝福你平安、快乐、幸福!
  • 她说,在人民币升值的同时,与中国在旅游业方面构成竞争关系的国家(如日本)的货币贬值,这意味着到其他一些亚洲国家旅游的费用更加便宜,而来中国旅游更贵了。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

8月全国建材家居景气指数环比上涨5.60点

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